Msp432 Adc Example Code

2 STM32L4 ADC electrical circuitry network The STM32L4 SAR ADC has a fixed input architecture which can be single-end or differential. After that, we will see an example, where we connect a variable resistor with the analog channel and measure voltage and display it on serial monitor of Arduino IDE. It supplies plenty of learning and teaching materials in each chapter with homework assignments, exercises, class projects, lab projects, and MS PPT slides, which. ADC Library provides you a comfortable work with the module. 2 Example of applications. The C281x ADC block configures the C281x ADC to perform analog-to-digital conversion of signals connected to the selected ADC input pins. On the ESP32 pins GPIO32 through GPIO39 can be used. Some one may want to use 10-bit ADC CSD Component, but doesn't find its code example in PSoC Creator. It can be expressed as A/D or A-to-D or A-D…. The code reads the voltage on analogPin and displays it. Sample Code. example 2:. Hi everyone, I am currently working on developping an ADC on my stm32f051r8 In fact, the peripheral sends always incoherent values (550 for 0V, 500 for 3V sometimes for exemple). Analog Inputs (ADC) Reading an analog value with the ESP32 means you can measure varying voltage levels between 0 V and 3. Thread 15050: Hi,I need example codes for LPC2368(UART,ADC and others). You may have noticed that all analog-digital converters have comparators. 2 Operation 8. Table 1 provides examples of the relationship between the wire interface, the bit clock based on the ADC resolution, and sample clock parameters. We used "MSP432 LaunchPad with Grove Starter Kit" for both. The PCF8591 is a single-chip, single-supply low-power 8-bit CMOS data acquisition device with four analog inputs, one analog output and a serial I 2 C-bus interface. The Analog To Digital Functions Are Given To You. For example, for a 16-bit, 200 Ms/s converter, 2-wire ADC, the bit clock rate is 800 MHz. STM32 H743 DFSDM ADC example I noticed that there is no example of how to use DFSDM for low-pass filtering without CPU of ADC signal. c ADC12, Using an External Reference msp430fr69xx_adc12_10. ds30 Loader, a universal PIC bootloader. Jul 22, 2015 · A detailed tutorial on STM32 ADC Stm32f3 adc example code. Code examples are categorized according to the following types: GCC Executable (no framework): Utilize handwritten drivers without any automatic code generation. Personally, I find the MSP430 to be the cleanest 8/16 bit performance class architecture out there and the peripherals are very nice to work with. The example was written for the MSP432 using the Energia environment. i used the MSP432 Launchpad. Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) operating mode AN5012 8/38 DocID030334 Rev 1 2. They only understand digital signals in binary form. The code listing below, mqtt. The application uses the basic D2xx function calls: FT_ListDevices – to detect the device connected. Energia Programming for TI Tiva and MSP432 ARM Energia is based on the latest Arduino IDE for TI products. So now let's see how to write code or program for reading ADC values of with any of these 15 channels available on this board. ! 1! Implementing SPI Communication Between MSP430™G2452 and LTC2382-16 ADC. I am wanting to go in the C programming direction as opposed to the Assembler Language, but I am having difficulty finding code examples for this. For example, say we wanted to take measurements every 0. The graph is an indicator of the voltage applied to the ADC, as illustrated. The output of the Sample and Hold is connected to the input of the A/D converter. With a rich set of analog, timing, and communications peripherals, they cater to a large number of application scenarios. You can replace 4 with any preferred channel number. It consists of a 1602 white character blue backlight LCD. UPDATE! 3rd of March 2018 The code in this example has been updated. Using the ADC on the LPC824 Previous Article Sample code for bmp180 Encryption Energia code Games LoRa LPC1114 mbed msp430 MSP432 NRF905 samd20 spi STM32F030. This tutorial shows how to use various modes of the STM32 ADCs, including: Before you begin, install VisualGDB 5. unsigned int value=0; [/code] The ConfigureAdc function will setup the ADC module. 4 and the LED never changes. MSP432 projects. See the sample code section at the bottom of the page for more information. For multichannel ADC case, you ought to use DMA. I am also using a unity gain buffer amplifier to provide some isolation between the battery and the microcontroller. HELP ATSAMD21 ADC bare code. The ATmega 32u4 features a differential ADC (analogue to digital converter) as well as a programmable gain amplifier. * ***** * * MSP432 CODE EXAMPLE DISCLAIMER * * MSP432 code examples are self-contained low-level programs that typically * demonstrate a single peripheral function or device feature in a highly * concise manner. 1 pause 1000 ; wait 1 second low B. Data type. How to program an Ultrasonic sensor HC-SR04 using code composer studio using ADC with the MSP432? Here is the code I have(not working). various device code examples written in both register-access and DriverLib formats. It's a very low-power microcontroller with much lower performance than a DSP. I am having the Spartan-6 evaluation board (SP-601) as well as the TI-ADC evaluation board. When the SDK is already locally installed in the default location, all examples are taken directly from the installed SDK. Example 1 Code. This book can used as a support material for microcontroller and embedded system courses. For example:. This is intended for hobbyists and students desiring knowledge on programming microcontrollers, and is written at a level that students entering the junior level. According to the datasheet, this prescalar needs to be set so that the ADC input frequency is between 50 KHz and 200 KHz. #pragma code //End bootloader code int result ; void main (void) { //Pre: The library of ADC is included. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Code Examples for XC8 I am new to the programming side of things, so I am trying to get started on a the PIC18 Explorer Demo Board. For instance, an ADC with 12bit and DNL = 0 is better than an ADC with 15 bit and DNL $ \lt \pm$ 4 LSB. Refer to ADC 444, Revise Asset Status Report Transactions, DLMS 846I and MILSTRAP DZA, to Document Ammunition Systems Use by Agreement of Nine Digit Quantity On-Hand. The keypad consists of 5 keys — select, up, right, down and left. With N representing the ADC's resolution or total number of bits, there will be 2 N code bins. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. A sample and hold circuit (S&H) is used to sample the analog input voltage and hold (i. ADC_ExternalTrigConv = 0; 3- this means your assigning the EXTSEL of ADC_CR2 register to zero. Note: When using the ADC, the switches in the switch bank must be open (the switches are grey when closed, grey when closed). Can I use a incremental encoder for as a interrupt? Most examples I've found use a button that outputs a high or low signal as a flag for a interrupt. If your lucky then your device will have moved a bit and you might notice that the device didn’t reach its full range of motion. So perhaps we should have your code placed in a glass case as an example of "everything you must never do when trying to read ADC?" Last Edited: Mon. The out-of-box source code and more code examples can be downloaded from the MSP-EXP432P401R tool folder. We set the 2. This hands-on lab demonstrates various examples with the TI MSP432P401R microcontroller and Keil µVision IDE. 1 Features 8. See here: This example combines two previous posts regarding the TLV5618 DAC and timer interrupts with the MSP432 Launchpad. They feature an ARM Cortex-M4 processor in a wide configuration of device options. Library Example. As an example: using a VDD of 5V, the value returned from pin 2 of the PIC is 884. This example also shows how to use the Hardware Interrupt block to synchronize the change in the PWM duty cycle with analog to digital conversion of voltage. // This function maps on ADC sample (range 0 to 3FFF, midpoint 1FFF) // to the display Y coordinates (range 0 to 127, midpoint 64) // It also adds a digital gain factor. 5 MSP-EXP432P401R LaunchPad -- 1. Ensure you select "Standalone" as the device type because the MSP432 LaunchPad is outfitted with a CC3100 WiFi network processor enabling direct Internet connection (no gateway required). It introduces ARM Cortex-M4 MCU by highlighting the most important elements, including: registers, pipelines, memory, and I/O ports. After that, we will see an example, where we connect a variable resistor with the analog channel and measure voltage and display it on serial monitor of Arduino IDE. The ADC is setup to continuously sample/convert * from A0 when the trigger starts and store the results in resultsBuffer (it * is setup to be a circular buffer where resPos overflows to 0). Obstacle Avoidance Robot Using TI Launchpad MSP432: This project started because I was given a TI Launchpad MSP432 board. /*This example sketch shows how to make ADC measurements via registers and how to use the low noise or noise cancellation ADC measurement capability. zip - Example project for the 28x DSP in the F28M35H52C1 The SYS/BIOS portion of the code is based on the SYS/BIOS->28x Examples->Task Example which can be found under the “Project templates and examples section” of the New CCS Project window. Projects use Atmel Studio 7 IDE. The out-of-box source code and more code examples can be downloaded from the MSP-EXP432P401R tool folder. Sampling its ADC from a timer interrupt using the Arduino IDE is the topic of this ESP32 tutorial. It defaults to 10 bits (returns values between 0-1023) for backward compatibility with AVR based boards. If i run at 48 Mhz and connect the ADC with that, can i reach more than 1 Msps? example 1: ADC 48 Mhz, 4 cycles sample and hold, 16 cycles conversion (14 bit resoultion), 1 channel 48 000 000 / (4 * 16 * 1) = 750 000 = 750 kSps example 2:. I’ve struggled with this one. ADC on stm32f0. Once a Class_1 ADC is enabled, it has only two states: sampling or converting. Can someone post some sample code to read the MCP3204 using the MCP3208 driver by Chip in the installed propeller tool? I think we are using it right, but getting 0 out. Developers can follow the MSP432 Platform Porting application note to learn how to port code between 16‐bit MSP430 and 32‐bit MSP432 MCU platforms. Code examples are categorized according to the following types: GCC Executable (no framework): Utilize handwritten drivers without any automatic code generation. In addition, the ADC threshold compare function. This ADC mode can be implemented to monitor a battery voltage, the measurement and regulation of an oven temperature, etc. 2) Unzip this file placing at any convenient place on your computer. TI Tiva ARM Programming For Embedded Systems: Programming ARM Cortex-M4 TM4C123G with C (Mazidi & Naimi ARM Series) (Volume 2) Muhammad Ali Mazidi. Each channel has serial LVDS output. Open Cube-MX and create a new project using the NUCLEO-F401RE. Connect an analog sensor to its input socket and connect the I2C ADC to Arduino/Seeeduino also via Grove cables. Analog Inputs (ADC) Reading an analog value with the ESP32 means you can measure varying voltage levels between 0 V and 3. This post will give you a basic idea on using STM8 internal ADC. 8 Laboratory exercise. An example of a TI Driver API to read the ADC: ADC_convert(adc, &adcValue0); MSP432 Driver Library: For the MSP432 product family, Driver Library is available in the device ROM. Home » Source Code » STM8 example program ADC. Not sure if the ADCCTL0 or ADCCTL1 registers are missing something. Data Packet Structure 3. Contribute to jancumps/msp432 development by creating an account on GitHub. 2 MSP432 driver library. Example Code. This is the successor of another low power development board called MSP430. Experiment description. It consists of a 1602 white character blue backlight LCD. PID is a control algorithm. The 16-bit ADC model is built around a function, ADC_16b_10v_bipolar. 4 µDMA When the ADC sample is completed, the data is automatically moved to one of the two SRAM buffers using DMA channel 7. > Of these, only the ADC peripheral on PMK8350 is exposed directly to SW. If anyone has an idea, or can give us some direction it would be greatly appreciated. But we will start from basics and. PIC16F877 and LM35 Temperature Sensor Application simple CCSC Example PIC16F877 10-bit ADC is be used. This small topic shows the circuit diagram and CCS C code of the interfacing of LM35 temperature sensor with PIC18F4550 microcontroller. The LCD screen is hooked up to PORTA of the PIC (see UF_LCD Tutorial) and channel4 of the A/D is also on PORTA. The ADS1115 is a precision, low-power, 16-bit, I 2 C-compatible, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) offered in an ultra-small, leadless, X2QFN-10 package, and a VSSOP-10 package. Does anyone know example code in MATLAB to do this? Specifically, I would like to see how to tell the CH1Z controller to program the ADC registers then acquire data as a stream. various device code examples written in both register-access and DriverLib formats. Step 3) Download Valvano's example code for the MSP432. The easiest way to use the ADC Nanoshield along with an Arduino is using the Base Board Uno or Base Board L Uno. Hi all, i have some problems with my msp432 (#MSP430) and adc14. 1F 10F V REF SDA SCL AD1 AD0 OUTPUT CODE 0 I N L (L S B) 0 0. The hardware installation should be like this:. c" under the MSP432P4xx Code Examples. <-get the source code; This program reads the analogue input. I have been trying to get the MSP432 ADC example code, msp432p401_adc14_01, to work on my MSP432P401R. Conversion speed. The PCF8591 is a single-chip, single-supply low-power 8-bit CMOS data acquisition device with four analog inputs, one analog output and a serial I 2 C-bus interface. Re: ADC Sample rate Post by kolban » Sat Feb 18, 2017 6:34 am A post on this thread talking about ADC in connection with the ESP-IDF APIs mentions that the max sample frequency is 6KHz or a maximum sps of 6000. The video shows how you can use PSoC® to transfer data from one peripheral (ADC) to another (VDAC), using DMA without any CPU intervention. 6 BoosterPacks -- 1. To increase the sample size and allow measurement up to higher frequencies I used Energia's delayMicroseconds instead of millis. Buy ADC-12QM AD , View the manufacturer, and stock, and datasheet pdf for the ADC-12QM at Jotrin Electronics. 9 out of 5 stars 4. The lowest priority being the highest number. The Due, Zero and MKR Family boards have 12-bit ADC capabilities that can be. 47 Coupons 37 Coupons 45 Coupons. These code examples can be imported into your development environment to shorten your development time! Code examples are delivered as zip files located here. Sample Code. msp430fr69xx_adc12_03. An easier option is to trigger ADC conversions from a timer and use ADC interrupts to read the results. Conversion time of Successive Approximation ADC. Simple ADC Usage The simplest way to use the ADC is to manually begin a conversion, wait for it to complete, and read the result. Question: IN C The Project Is To Create A Program That Allows A User To Interface To The MSP432 Via The Console Window. It tries to keep. The code to perform demodulation is listed in Appendix C. TI Educational BoosterPack. OpenADC ( ADC_FOSC_32 & // A/D clock source set to 32Tosc. I am evaluating the TI ADC (ADS62p29). Both have a programmable gain from 2/3x to 16x so you can amplify small signals and read them. Example 1 Code. To make your prototyping experience as c onvenient as possible, MSP432 clicker is. The notebooks contain live code, and generated output from the code can be saved in the notebook. unsigned int value=0; [/code] The ConfigureAdc function will setup the ADC module. It execute step by step depend upon clock frequency. We wait for BUSY to be zero, in case there is a conversion in progress 4. These code examples allow developers to add programmability to simple digital and analog functions such as timers, input/output expanders, system reset controllers, EEPROM and more. ATmega AVR Code Example Apr 16, 2016 By Islam Essam In this article I will explain some basic fundamentals on the ATmega architecture and deliver a simple example built in AVR Studio that will summarize the material. I have been trying to get the MSP432 ADC example code, msp432p401_adc14_01, to work on my MSP432P401R. ADC data over the UART. For the case of this example, 12 bit ADC resolution was used making the denominator 4096. Once you have gone through all the examples in the MSP432 resource, you may want to start from scratch with a clean slate. MSP432P401R: Initialize ADC MSP432, sanity check Referencing MSP432 example "msp432p401x_adc14_06. lua, gives the code to implement the MQTT protocol on Citrix ADC using protocol extensions. If the carry flag is clear, the result is. Operating from a 5V low voltage supply, flexible high voltage supplies, and using the internal reference and buffer, each channel of this SoftSpanTM ADC can be independe. If we had an analog sensor with an output voltage ~1V (a TMP36, for example), we could set the gain on the ADC to GAIN_FOUR, which would give us a +/-1. I then would like to setup > the DMA to collect these 4 words and put them into a buffer of 256 > words and notify me when it is done. First, let's set the prescalar for the ADC. In this sample, you have the option of using either the MCP3002, MCP3008, or MCP3208 ADC (Analog to Digital Converter). How to use Analog to digital converter channels of ESP32. As illustrated in Fig. The code only has the TCP client data callback function defined - client. (One day I’ll post the code I used for that on this blog!). ADC14_initModule (ADC_CLOCKSOURCE_ADCOSC, ADC_PREDIVIDER_1, ADC_DIVIDER_1, 0); // This configures the ADC to store output results // in ADC_MEM0 up to ADC_MEM1. for abortion essay; 3 minutes thesis competition utm; custom essay about broadway musical theater; resume skill example; top article writing site for masters; common core persuasive essay rubric; popular bibliography ghostwriter. At 14-bits, the sample rate is 60 SPS. The challenge many developers face today is maintaining or improving battery operating. I think it is a software problem because the values by the ADC differs when I use the BASCOM and the C Program on the same board. They are also available within Code Composer Studio, within our. This is intended for hobbyists and students desiring knowledge on programming microcontrollers, and is written at a level that students entering the junior level. At less than USD13, the MSP432 is the perfect kit to start with embedded systems and explore real time applications with the easy-to-use Energia IDE based on the Wiring / Arduino framework. Sample code for USB, Audio, SPIO Mass Storage, LED, ADC, External interrupt, Timer, UART, Interrupt, Timer, Vector interrupt controller. The ADS1015 and ADS1115 are great analog to digital converters that are easy to use with the Raspberry Pi using its I2C communication bus. One integer is defined to contain the conversion result. Figure below shows connection schematic, while the program is on the next page. The microcontroller of the board has a circuit inside called an analog-to-digital converter or ADC that reads this changing voltage and converts it to a number between 0 and 1023. This example project uses the ADC in the PIC32 to convert a voltage from analog to digital and display the magnitude of the result on the four LEDs found on the Digilent® chipKIT® WF32 development board. I set up > the ADC to sample the 4 pins as a sequence. Clicker 2 for MSP432 PID: MIKROE-2502 Clicker 2 for MSP432 is a compact development board with two mikroBUS™ sockets for click board connectivity. STM32 example of DSP, ADC and DAC. /* A simple ADC example that checks the analog reading on ADC0 and turns. At peripheral bus clock of 40 MHz (period 25 nSec), ADC_SAMPLE_TIME_6 should work for the sample period (150 nSec) and ADC_CONV_CLK_Tcy2, while a little fast (50 nSec), seems to work for the ADC clock. They only understand digital signals in binary form. Buy ADC-12QM AD , View the manufacturer, and stock, and datasheet pdf for the ADC-12QM at Jotrin Electronics. 4 µDMA When the ADC sample is completed, the data is automatically moved to one of the two SRAM buffers using DMA channel 7. 3V supply as the T3. The following code in the GPIO_toggle_output. Since a conversion takes 13 ADC clocks, the default sample rate is about 9600 Hz (125KHz/13). TI-RTOS Drivers and Board Initialization provides a set of device driver APIs, such as UART and IIC, that are standard across all devices, as well as initialization code for all supported boards. For example you could use the LCD_Joystick example to send out the coordinates of the cursor on screen whenever Button 2 is pressed. Have a opinion, suggestion , question or feedback about the article let it out here!. We hope you have Energia downloaded and running. Re: ADC Sample rate Post by kolban » Sat Feb 18, 2017 6:34 am A post on this thread talking about ADC in connection with the ESP-IDF APIs mentions that the max sample frequency is 6KHz or a maximum sps of 6000. MSPWare_2_00_00_41\examples\boards\MSP-EXP432P401R; Step 3) Download Valvano's example code for the MSP432. It also includes the programs for interfacing of MSP432 to LCD, Serial COM port, DC motor, stepper motor, sensors, and graphics LCD. Full Scale Range (FSR) Full Scale Range is the range defined by the reference inputs of the ADC If the ADC has only a positive reference input and the negative reference input is tied to ground FSR = VRef+, otherwise FSR = VRef+ - VRef-. code that supports device function ME 4405 - Lecture 10 Polling Example Interrupts on the MSP432 while(1). I had assumed that pin AREF outputs the Vref but it has 3. Note: When using the ADC, the switches in the switch bank must be open (the switches are grey when closed, grey when closed). Three address pins A0, A1 and A2 are used for programming the hardware address, allowing the use of up to eight devices connected to the I 2 C-bus without additional har. MSP432 Clicker PID: MIKROE-2503 MSP432 clicker is a compact development board with a mikroBUS™ socket for click board connectivity. The LCD screen is hooked up to PORTA of the PIC (see UF_LCD Tutorial) and channel4 of the A/D is also. To increase the sample size and allow measurement up to higher frequencies I used Energia's delayMicroseconds instead of millis. MSP432 datasheet, cross reference, circuit and application notes in pdf format. 27-03-2004: LCD pagesand our VERY FIRST C Codeexample! We also added an introduction to the TWIin the architecture section. The ADC that I'm using is the ADS7818 from Texas Instruments. Examples and documentation •Large number of examples, documentation and training make it easy to start developing applications TI SimpleLink™ MCUs TI k K DriverLib (HAL) TI Drivers OS Kernel ES SDK PLUG-INS Customer Applications r MSP432 CC2640R2 CC3220 CC13xx POSIX Middleware Graphics Graphi Sub-1GHz/802. Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) In order to interface analog sensors with your project, you will need to use the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). For example, if the specified resistance at 25°C for a thermistor with 10% tolerance is 10,000 ohms then the measured resistance at that temperature can range from 9,000 ohms to 11000 ohms. (Actually, the example has multiple ADC channels in use, so it's better for educational purposes). ESP32 audio sampling is a practical ESP32 project for this next-generation microcontroller. that the bit clock is divided by two. Sending ADC data on Serial Port In this example we will be looking at how to gather the ADC data from the MSP430 and throw the data on the Serial Port. The system level static performance was observed as below. The MSP432 package provides only one sample - LEDBlink. The code there provdes an example similar to what you are trying to do. MSP432 Clicker PID: MIKROE-2503 MSP432 clicker is a compact development board with a mikroBUS™ socket for click board connectivity. Good evening, i used the MSP432 Launchpad. Mine came with a g2231 and g2211. various device code examples written in both register-access and DriverLib formats. 3 - USB with Minimal CPU Use Safe & Sound - Example Code for the Challenge Kit. Each channel has serial LVDS output. Hi all, I am doing an analog to digital program. 0 and CMSIS mode writing code. I used this sample code from corresponding reference manual. The TwoChan examples use SS2 sampling two channels with software start and busy-wait synchronization. These code examples can be imported into your development environment to shorten your development time! Code examples are delivered as zip files located here. •Traditional MSP register-level access code fully supported •Header files provide complete register & bit definitions •Complete portability for common peripherals across 16 & 32-bit platforms •100+ code examples for MSP430-shared & new MSP432 peripherals 3 WDTCTL = WDTPW | WDTHOLD; // Stop WDT. 5 MSP-EXP432P401R LaunchPad -- 1. The idea of it is to be able to visualize the data you return, beyond just seeing numbers spit out onto the serial monitor. Lets look at the ADS1115. For example you could use the LCD_Joystick example to send out the coordinates of the cursor on screen whenever Button 2 is pressed. ADC 0804 is the ADC used here and before going through the interfacing procedure, we must neatly understand how the ADC 0804 works. The process remains same as using in single channel, with some addons though. For technical detail concerning the way to use CUBE-MX and ATOLLIC see this tutorial. 3 posts / 0 new. The example shows how to use the driver with a NI sbRIO. This project uses printf() to output text to the terminal window over the serial port, so the project is based on part 11 of this tutorial series which uses a UART for stdio functions. Everything you need to get started. This textbook covers the details of the MSP432 peripherals such as ADC, Timer, SPI, I2C and so on with ARM programs. This function will let the main loop know that an ADC value is ready to be. See UF_LCD tutorial for wiring of the LCD screen. The MSP432 is a mixed-signal microcontroller family from Texas Instruments. MSP432 projects. Operating System: None: IP Core. 0 or later and ensure you are using the latest version of the STM32 BSP. STMicroelectronics has done a good job of creating example projects for their STM32 devices. The shield utilizes the Linear Technology LTC185x ADC and is available in 12-bit (LTC1857), 14-bit (LTC1858) , and 16-bit (LTC1859) versions. 3 - USB with Minimal CPU Use Safe & Sound - Example Code for the Challenge Kit. ROM With MSP432 Peripheral Driver Libraries. The code in this example is setup to continuously sample the ADC and update the value in block 9. #include "msp430g2231. The idea of it is to be able to visualize the data you return, beyond just seeing numbers spit out onto the serial monitor. o Sample P4. Now let’s compare the jitter on the ADC output signal to the sample clock jitter: they should be approximately equal. As a minimum, the sample-and-hold time should be 4 ADC clock cycles. The process of analogue to digital conversion is outlined. ADC1_IN2 – PA2. For example, a converter with a 2kHz output data rate may have a modulator loop frequency of over 2. One integer is defined to contain the conversion result. Tags ATmega 예제 프로젝트 타이머 코드 usart example 소스 예제소스이다. The LaunchPad can be paired with additional hardware to enhance the learning experience around the MCU peripherals. Usually expressed in percent (e. ! 1! Implementing SPI Communication Between MSP430™G2452 and LTC2382-16 ADC _____! Enwei&Gu&. The video shows how you can use PSoC® to transfer data from one peripheral (ADC) to another (VDAC), using DMA without any CPU intervention. 627 words code 352 word constants (including 128 words example-data) execution time: 86. our ADC input as well as one pin on the two 3-pin ADC inputs. Posted on December 25, 2016 at 09:08. msp430fr69xx_adc12_03. ADC driver amplifiers perform many important functions, including buffering, amplitude scaling, single-ended-to-differential and differential-to-single-ended conversion, common-mode offset adjustment, and filtering. Prodigy 50 points Joshua MacFie Replies: 10. The purpose of this lab activity is to explore the concepts of analog to digital conversion by building explanatory examples. Several library routines are included to provide you comfortable work with the module in single-ended mode. The nRF51822 is a very popular SoC (System on a Chip) which integrates BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) with an ARM Cortex M0 CPU. c" under the MSP432P4xx Code Examples. In reply to FrankL:. Programming To make your prototyping experience as convenient as possible, clicker 2 for MSP432 is preprogrammed. For example adc = (ADC_Read(6)); to read the ADC value from channel 6 and save it in the variable "adc". Like the MSP430, it has a number of built-in peripheral devices, and is designed for low power requirements. MSP432 Clicker PID: MIKROE-2503 MSP432 clicker is a compact development board with a mikroBUS™ socket for click board connectivity. ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) module is available with a number of AVR MCUs. Since, I was a little curious i bought the MSP430 launchpad quite a while back. For instance, it can be used to log the output of a sensor (temperature, pressure, etc) at regular intervals, or to take some action in function of the measured variable value. The example shows how to use the driver with a NI sbRIO. 0 and CMSIS mode writing code. EVAL-AD7779FMCZ – ADC connected to the EVAL-SDP-CH1Z. To save the digital IO pins, the keypad interface uses only one ADC channel. New Arduino Serial Plotter With the release of Arduino IDE v1. 214): The Scan mode is selected by setting the SCAN bit in the ADC_CR1 register. If i run at 48 Mhz and connect the ADC with that, can i reach more than 1 Msps? example 1: ADC 48 Mhz, 4 cycles sample and hold, 16 cycles conversion (14 bit resoultion), 1 channel 48 000 000 / (4 * 16 * 1) = 750 000 = 750 kSps. In burst mode the AD converter. Expand the SimpleLink MSP432SDK->Example->DriverLib; Under DriverLib. Usually expressed in percent (e. Each click board comes with a set of working example code. Introduction. The ATmega 32u4 features a differential ADC (analogue to digital converter) as well as a programmable gain amplifier. 3 Microcontroller systems -- 1. The 16-bit precision SAR ADC integrated in MSP432P4 MCUs supports high-performance analog-to-digital conversions at up to 1Msps and up to 16 ENOB. We've been working hard on improved tools for modern Android development and distribution, and improving Google Play and the Play Console for better app discovery and monetization. 4 and the LED never changes. ADC internal oscillator times sample (16x) and converslon. LPC2000 ADC code example Burst mode – Interrupt driven The second example shows the conversion results using the same UART0 (send output) routines. Each sensor has it’s unique BLE profile and provides all relevant data from periodic sensor readings. Free essays, homework help, flashcards, research papers, book reports, term papers, history, science, politics. TI-RTOS Drivers and Board Initialization provides a set of device driver APIs, such as UART and IIC, that are standard across all devices, as well as initialization code for all supported boards. So, for an N-bit ADC, there are 2N codes and 1 LSB = FS/2N, where FS is the full-scale analog input voltage. 0 out of 5 stars 6. Code Examples for XC8 I am new to the programming side of things, so I am trying to get started on a the PIC18 Explorer Demo Board. For example adc = (ADC_Read(6)); to read the ADC value from channel 6 and save it in the variable "adc". 4-11) for the T3. For do this example we use the NUCLEO-F401RE, CUBE-MX and ATOLLIC. CCS Cloud and CCS Desktop are good options for more serious development and are integrated with many resources and documentation from TI for both the hardware and software. pic24f Adc sampling 2017/11/14 09:10:55 0. I want to be able to do Analog to Digital sampling from the ADC within MATLAB. On this tutorial we will use two different approaches to program the PIC18 microcontroller family analog to digital converter (ADC) peripheral. A DSP example program using ARM CMSIS-DSP libraries. 0 and CMSIS mode writing code. MSP432 Problem with Timer Interrupt - Page 1. various device code examples written in both register-access and DriverLib formats. Yes I have checked this link, but example of ADC is not clear. ADC is an electronic circuit that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. Add to application C-file:. Adding an ADC to the Raspberry Pi AN_221 AN_221 Version 1. zip ADCT0ATrigger. (5) The TAC 2 must not allow Post Office Box addresses. Xojo Plugin Examples. Example 1 Code. The LM35 temperature sensor is three pin device (VCC, OUT and GND) with an output voltage linearly related to Centigrade temperature. The ADC ISR routine below:. 2 Demodulation Implementation In the demodulator, the ADC coverts the analog signal into digital, which provides better dynamic range performance and is easier to process in software. Definition at line 48 of file adc_dma_test. Now I facing some problems with getting correct readings of ADC ports in MSP432. Code examples are categorized according to the following types: GCC Executable (no framework): Utilize handwritten drivers without any automatic code generation. In PSoC Creator use File > Code Example to download and import the example. Operating from a 5V low voltage supply, flexible high voltage supplies, and using the internal reference and buffer, each channel of this SoftSpanTM ADC can be independe. Where to Use MSP432 Launchpad. Graphical representation is available using Serial Plotter (Tools > Serial Plotter menu). Before configuring the ADC, the SAR core have to be switched on using ADC10ON bit and ENC bit should be cleared. i used the MSP432 Launchpad. Fortunately for us, there is the mighty MSP432 now. Analog Inputs (ADC) Reading an analog value with the ESP32 means you can measure varying voltage levels between 0 V and 3. The SimpleLink MSP432P401x microcontrollers (MCUs) are optimized wireless host MCUs with an integrated 16-bit precision ADC, delivering ultra-low-power performance including 80 µA/MHz in active power and 660 nA in standby power with FPU and DSP extensions. CCS C Compiler Example Programs Full List of Example Files. If more precise values are needed (down to fractions) a more detailed formula can be found in the user’s guide [2]. Some one may want to use 10-bit ADC CSD Component, but doesn't find its code example in PSoC Creator. All the programs in the book are tested using the MSP432 LaunchPad development kit. Definition at line 48 of file adc_dma_test. Data Packet Structure 3. MSP432 projects. This module is based on a Successive Approximation Register (SAR) architecture and provides a maximum sampling rate of 200 ksps. The 12-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) allows conversion of an analog input signal to a 12-bit digital number. The MSP432 goes into LMP3 mode consuming little power. For instance, it can be used to log the output of a sensor (temperature, pressure, etc) at regular intervals, or to take some action in function of the measured variable value. It is used in the Arduino Leonardo and the Pro Micro. Figure below shows connection schematic, while the program is on the next page. Second, configure a timer to measure the desired interval. MSP432 and TI-RTOS: another I2C example - talk to a DAC MSP432 and TI-RTOS: Getting Started Pt. 2 thoughts on " Using the ADC on the LPC824 " akash salunkhe June 12, 2017 / 12:04 pm. I would suggest starting with this thread on E2E, which shows MSP432 DMA being used by ADC and SPI simultaneously. PIC Sample Code in C Brief Site Map. For n bit code each bit have some voltage level with respect to reference voltage here i give 3 bit ADC. The conversion speed, defined as samples per second, measures how fast the ADC can accurately convert analog values. ADC_ExternalTrigConv = DISABLE;" you actually assign it to zero like this "ADC_InitStructure. 3V supply as the T3. Download the code for this example from here. Been through the Family Guide on most of the script and it seems to be written correctly. Connect an analog sensor to its input socket and connect the I2C ADC to Arduino/Seeeduino also via Grove cables. 05-Jan-2020. various device code examples written in both register-access and DriverLib formats. The key core peripherals on MSP432P4xx devices include: power system [Power Controller Module (PCM)], clock system, and memory system (flash, SRAM, and ROM). STM8 example program ADC. For example, if the specified resistance at 25°C for a thermistor with 10% tolerance is 10,000 ohms then the measured resistance at that temperature can range from 9,000 ohms to 11000 ohms. Note: When using the ADC, the switches in the switch bank must be open (the switches are grey when closed, grey when closed). Download Energia from here Energia Sample Codes for EduBase W01_Toggle_LED_EduBase; W02_SW_in_LED_out_EduBase; W02_SW_in_LED_out_group_EduBase; W03_seven_seg_EduBase ; W04_buzzer_EduBase; W05_LCD_Library_EduBase ; W05_LCD_parallel_EduBase. Have fun and play, mix and match. Graphical representation is available using Serial Plotter (Tools > Serial Plotter menu). This example also shows how to use the Hardware Interrupt block to synchronize the change in the PWM duty cycle with analog to digital conversion of voltage. Many aspects of the ADC, including inputs, references, and the different operating modes are described. Before configuring the ADC, the SAR core have to be switched on using ADC10ON bit and ENC bit should be cleared. ds30 Loader, a universal PIC bootloader. Buy PCM1803ADBR with extended same day shipping times. By using the USCI serial TX modules and the DMA controller and liberal use of timer interrupts, I have managed to get it working without issue at 60 FPS. LPC2000 ADC code example Burst mode – Interrupt driven The second example shows the conversion results using the same UART0 (send output) routines. There are analog sensors available that measure temperature, light intensity, distance, position, and force, just to name a few. They feature an ARM Cortex-M4 processor in a wide configuration of device options. Basically, here's what I've done so far, but I seem to be having some trouble getting it works. 3V 150mA Supply - This supply provides an on-board reference for the ADC, and can power small sensors (for example, potentiometers or temperature sensors). Select example “gpio_toggle_output”->CCS Compiler, and click the button of “import to CCS cloud” (right side) gpio_toggle_output sample. In this example I have setup two channels to be read via the ADC with the plan of having these automatically buffered into RAM for me. I used switch stamement for received datas. 3 - USB with Minimal CPU Use MSP432 and TI-RTOS: Getting Started Pt. When the SDK is already locally installed in the default location, all examples are taken directly from the installed SDK. possible duplicate of C/C++ Library or example code for DSP Using the TI-MSP430 - Ben Voigt Dec 24 '10 at 21:00 TI makes DSP chips (good ones too), but the MSP430 isn't one of them. Most of the signals directly encountered in science and engineering are continuous: light intensity that changes with distance; voltage that varies over time; a chemical reaction rate that depends on temperature, etc. This hands-on lab demonstrates various examples with the TI MSP432P401R microcontroller and Keil µVision IDE. 8 Laboratory exercise. MSP432 projects. 3 ADC registers 8. 1] Example of WDT - Down - This is a example source show how to use WDT in MiDAS 1. Example below works on STM32F429-Discovery board. Question: IN C The Project Is To Create A Program That Allows A User To Interface To The MSP432 Via The Console Window. MSP432 Launchpad is connected through USB XDS serial Terminal. 1 pause 1000 ; wait 1 second goto main ; loop back to start Copy Code Submit an Example. It is recommended that the user visits the kit setup Getting Started Guide for MSP430, Getting Started Guide for TIVA, Getting Started Guide for MSP432 or Getting Started Guide for STM32F4 pages before trying the applications described on this page. 2 MSP432 driver library. They feature an ARM Cortex-M4 processor in a wide configuration of device options. Just think about it, 270 click boards give you more than 36000 combinations to choose from. A lower value, about 3. 0 or later and ensure you are using the latest version of the STM32 BSP. This means it provides readings from 0 to 1023 as the input voltage rises from Vss to Vref. Toggle LED; read from switches and write to LED outputs; seven segment ; buzzer ; LCD. These new 48MHz MCUs leverage TI's ultra-low-power MCU expertise to optimize performance without compromising. These are hardware-specific drivers that are primarily intended to serve as a hardware abstraction layer and configure bits at the register-level for the user. Working on the code this morning, I just realized that the flag ADRDY is never set after my configuration. Here's an adc example, but its old and for the d21, but again, code will be similar. FFT On A MSP432 Launchpad. 3 - USB with Minimal CPU Use MSP432 and TI-RTOS: Getting Started Pt. It supplies plenty of learning and teaching materials in each chapter with homework assignments, exercises, class projects, lab projects, and MS PPT slides, which. To test i do free running adc like below code. Analog Inputs (ADC) Reading an analog value with the ESP32 means you can measure varying voltage levels between 0 V and 3. Re: ADC Sample rate Post by kolban » Sat Feb 18, 2017 6:34 am A post on this thread talking about ADC in connection with the ESP-IDF APIs mentions that the max sample frequency is 6KHz or a maximum sps of 6000. ATmegaS128 ATMegaS128 Getting Started Code. 2) Unzip this file placing at any convenient place on your computer. 9 | Conclusion The analog-to-digital converter featured on the MSP430 microcontrollers is a very powerful tool for developers of applications using this device. 2 - Add an ADC Sample Task' on element14. For instance, an ADC with 12bit and DNL = 0 is better than an ADC with 15 bit and DNL $ \lt \pm$ 4 LSB. The system level static performance was observed as below. This example demonstrats how to create the ADS1258 LabVIEW FPGA SPI-based driver IP. To normalize our software we translated the software into C code. adc = (ADC_Read(4)); Is used to read the data from the ADC channel 4. Obstacle Avoidance Robot Using TI Launchpad MSP432: This project started because I was given a TI Launchpad MSP432 board. First, configure your ADC as desired (and with interrupts). He likes data, embedded stuff and AFL. More importantly, the intermodule dependencies specific to MSP432 are discussed to help show the combinations that makes sense for an MSP432 application. There is a Pure Data patch for visualising the data. On the basis of previous exercises of sensors, it is easy to write a program which measures the output voltage of the distance sensors, but in addition, this exercise includes converting this output voltage to distance. MSP432 Precision ADC DriverLib APIs // ADC14 DriverLib // APIs similar to MSP430 ADC12_A/B APIs but with new namespace or updated parameters extern bool ADC14_initModule(uint32_t clockSource, uint32_t clockPredivider,. Arduino UNO has 10-bit (2 10) ADC. If you choose to read these pins using the ADC command instead of the getPin() command that we used to read them as a digital input, you will get that 10-bit number. The 16-bit ADC model is built around a function, ADC_16b_10v_bipolar. This development board supports RTOS and ARM architecture hence we can use this for high performance applications at the same time the board is engineered to. 3 posts / 0 new. I'm not sure I can do the same thing with a encoder. Warning "incompatible pointer type" while building sample callback ADC code for Atmel SAMD20. MSP432 projects. Many ADC's are set up to sample a signal at equally spaced time intervals and store an integer code each time the signal is sampled. Main clock of MSP432 is run at 48Mhz to catch enough speed. 12-bit resolution is more accurate than the 10-bit options, and the number of channels determines how many different inputs you can read. It's the first official day of Carnival in Olinda and the streets in the historic part of town will be alive with revelers who come out to see dozens of giant puppets parade through the town. The Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) is used to convert an analog voltage (a voltage that vary continuously within a known range) to a 10-bit digital value. Code examples are categorized according to the following types: GCC Executable (no framework): Utilize handwritten drivers without any automatic code generation. ADC internal oscillator times sample (16x) and converslon. This example also shows how to use the Hardware Interrupt block to synchronize the change in the PWM duty cycle with analog to digital conversion of voltage. All code is licensed under BSD, and TI encourages reuse and modifications to fit specific needs. Several library routines are included to provide you comfortable work with the module in single-ended mode. You can replace 4 with any preferred channel number. 0 which is the default choice when creating a VisualGDB project. - ADC_MSP432. Is there any sample code to work with guix and adc data? I would like to change the guix prompt string after calculating the temperature with adc value. Remains the same for all ADC channels. 1] Example of PWM - Down - This is a example source show how to use PWM in MiDAS 1. At one of the Automation Technology Club meetings (where I did t. Hook up a power supply at port Pin A1 of the MSP430. Download the code for this example from here. Since, I was a little curious i bought the MSP430 launchpad quite a while back. working example code. Hi all, i have some problems with my msp432 (#MSP430) and adc14. If you're using Java 7 or Java 8, you should strongly consider using java. 3 - USB with Minimal CPU Use MSP432 and TI-RTOS: Getting Started Pt. The AD converter however, is now initialized in burst - and interrupt driven mode. Buy ADC-12QM AD , View the manufacturer, and stock, and datasheet pdf for the ADC-12QM at Jotrin Electronics. The next page of the wizard allows selecting the sample project. To get started, download project files and a code example demonstrating this functionality. of the op amp is connected to ADC channel 10 (P4. This tutorial shows how to use various modes of the STM32 ADCs, including: Before you begin, install VisualGDB 5. For example, the TI MSP432 ARM Cortex-M4 microcontrollers implements 3 priority bits, which allows for a maximum of 8 different priority levels (0 to 7 inclusive). Rather than keeping everything string-based, you should use a class which is designed to represent a file system path. begin(9600); // setup serial } void loop(). We configure the reference for 2. On Mon, Apr 27, 2020 at 6:55 PM Jishnu Prakash wrote: > > Add documentation for PMIC7 ADC peripheral. The CCS C compiler includes a library of example programs for many common applications. Texas Instruments MSP432 Microcontrollers are the latest addition of efficient ultra-low-power mixed-signal MCUs. The little ARM on the Launchpad packs in 256KB Flash and 64KB SRAM which leaves us enough space left over if we use the printf library. 프로그램 c언어 ATMEGA128 파이썬 인터럽트 비교 ADC timer 함수 만들기 AVR 졸업작품 트레이닝 코드비전 UART code 출력 STM32 포인터 led 샘플. To ensure a deterministic sampling rate, the ADC is automatically triggered by Timer_A0 channel CCR1. Also note that due to this issue, the code example will occasionally become unresponsive. The 16-bit precision SAR ADC integrated in MSP432P4 MCUs supports high-performance analog-to-digital conversions at up to 1Msps and up to 16 ENOB. Several library routines are included to provide you comfortable work with the module in single-ended mode. It also includes the programs for interfacing of MSP432 to LCD, Serial COM port, DC motor, stepper motor, sensors and graphics LCD. PIC16F877A ADC example with CCS C compiler: This is an example to start with the ADC module, example circuit schematic is shown below: The LCD used to display the analog value after conversion where channel 0 (RA0) is the analog input and analog signal can be changed from the potentiometer. ADC_ExternalTrigConv = 0; 3- this means your assigning the EXTSEL of ADC_CR2 register to zero. The Blinky, RTX-Blinky, LoPower, LoPower_RTX and DSP Sine examples are included in the APNT_276. various device code examples written in both register-access and DriverLib formats. One of the cool things about the new design is the ease with which developers familiar with the MSP430 family can migrate to the new MSP432 controller. Apr 30, 2020 (WiredRelease via COMTEX) -- Key Market Insights 2020 The latest report pertaining to Global ADC Blowing Agents Market on the basis of. That would be shocking to see such inaccuracy on my Due. There are original sample codes available at Texas instruments wesite. But do read the manual to determine that that is correct, I have not looked in detail. LPC2000 ADC code example Burst mode – Interrupt driven The second example shows the conversion results using the same UART0 (send output) routines. The voltage can be calculated as. asm pic18f4620 pwm module Text: code ; and debug the code. : FTDI# 311 4 Application code 4. VBScript Examples. can anybodyplease let me know where can I get those examples. 627 words code 352 word constants (including 128 words example-data) execution time: 86. The conversion speed, defined as samples per second, measures how fast the ADC can accurately convert analog values. The output of the Sample and Hold is connected to the input of the A/D converter. The combination of 16-bit precision, ultra-low sampling current and. A Free & Open Forum For Electronics Enthusiasts & Professionals My goal for now is to sample audio at 44. 2 MSP432 driver library. In electronics , an analog-to-digital converter ( ADC , A/D , or A-to-D ) is a system that converts an analog signal , such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera , into. If more precise values are needed (down to fractions) a more detailed formula can be found in the user’s guide [2]. I have multiple inputs to the ADC and would like to read them individually and separately. 5V then the high-order bit in the result is set. How to use this tool. // This function maps on ADC sample (range 0 to 3FFF, midpoint 1FFF) // to the display Y coordinates (range 0 to 127, midpoint 64) // It also adds a digital gain factor. I Am using a multimeter to get the viability of the correct process. Analog to digital converter (ADC) with Direct Memory Access (DMA) In lesson 7 I introduce analog to digital converter, that measure voltage on one analog input. It supplies plenty of learning and teaching materials in each chapter with homework assignments, exercises, class projects, lab projects, and MS PPT slides, which. Other MEGA-AVRs should work the same. This is the successor of another low power development board called MSP430. These projects can be run with either Keil uVision 5 or CCS. For example, for a 16-bit, 200 Ms/s converter, 2-wire ADC, the bit clock rate is 800 MHz. Example Notebooks. MSP432 Problem with Timer Interrupt - Page 1. Find what code examples are available and more details about each example in Section 3. As usual, Energia MT comes with different multi-tasking examples, and Texas Instruments provides great learning material for the real time operation system. 50 4096 2309 G01 0. The data is taken in from the ADC. In the above figure, pin3(AN3) of PIC12F675 is being used as ADC input pin [1]. As usual, Energia MT comes with different multi-tasking examples, and Texas Instruments provides great learning material for the real time operation system. A/D conversion example Here is the example code for the analog to digital conversion. So today We will see How to read multichannel ADC in STM32. zip saving the 32M file on your computer. The nRF51822 is a very popular SoC (System on a Chip) which integrates BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) with an ARM Cortex M0 CPU. LPC2000 ADC code example Burst mode – Interrupt driven The second example shows the conversion results using the same UART0 (send output) routines. When the SDK is already locally installed in the default location, all examples are taken directly from the installed SDK. adc_con(avg_output); // Function to convert the decimal vaule to its corresponding ASCII void adc_init() ADCON1=0x0E; // Make RA0/AN0 pin as analog pin (Other pins remain to be digital I/O). Example An example that utilizes oversampling and averag-ing is provided in this application note in Appendix C. MSP432 Precision ADC DriverLib APIs // ADC14 DriverLib // APIs similar to MSP430 ADC12_A/B APIs but with new namespace or updated parameters extern bool ADC14_initModule(uint32_t clockSource, uint32_t clockPredivider,. I think the code should be very simple, but I just want to get a second opinion so I don't end up in the wrong direction. PIC16F877A ADC example with CCS C compiler: This is an example to start with the ADC module, example circuit schematic is shown below: The LCD used to display the analog value after conversion where channel 0 (RA0) is the analog input and analog signal can be changed from the potentiometer. It carries the SimpleLink™ MSP432™ - ARM® 32-Bit Cortex®-M4F CPU with integrated 1Msps 14-bit SAR-based ADC from Texas Instruments. shifted by 4 bits (see attached pic). Download Energia from here. Once a Class_1 ADC is enabled, it has only two states: sampling or converting. This code is excellent! I am experiencing one issue though. This example shows how to use the ADC block to sample an analog voltage and use the PWM block to generate a pulse waveform. * an LED on if the reading is higher than a threshold value and turns if. LPC2000 ADC code example Burst mode – Interrupt driven The second example shows the conversion results using the same UART0 (send output) routines. Expand the SimpleLink MSP432SDK->Example->DriverLib; Under DriverLib. A potentiometer is used to create an analog voltage signal, and the PIC reads the analog signal and outputs a PWM duty cycle corresponding to the voltage level. There is a statement on the first page of the datasheet which reads. pic24f Adc sampling 2017/11/14 09:10:55 0. Anyway, use this example to study what a real program looks like. Bringing Your Apps to the New iPad Pro. Exploit Collector is the ultimate collection of public exploits and exploitable vulnerabilities. Actual voltage is not an exact value such as 1V or 5V, but an irrational number, in which numerical values continue forever after the decimal point, such as 5. This register is used to select the analog port channel to be used, voltage reference for the ADC operation and the data presentation of the ADC result in the ADCL and ADCH data registers after conversion. If you choose to read these pins using the ADC command instead of the getPin() command that we used to read them as a digital input, you will get that 10-bit number. uVision Lab for the TI MSP432 LaunchPad Board. Steps covered: -Installing CCS for the MSP Support -Using the App Center to obtain MSPWare -Using the. various device code examples written in both register-access and DriverLib formats. This example measures the dynamic characteristics of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using National Instruments hardware and software.